Intervenciones basadas en mindfulness para reducir el estrés en la enfermedad cardiovascular: ¿cómo funcionan?

Erika Yohanna Bedoya Cardona


Las enfermedades cardiovasculares corresponden a un grupo de trastornos debidos al aumento del estrés, depresión, ansiedad, sedentarismo, consumo de tabaco y alcohol y otros factores, y encabezan la lista como causa de la mayor de mortalidad en países de ingresos medios y bajos. Las pérdidas atribuibles a dichas enfermedades aumentan la pobreza y constituyen uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública en el mundo. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue explicar teóricamente cómo funcionan las intervenciones basadas en el mindfulness para la regulación emocional y la reducción de estrés en estas afecciones, mediante una revisión bibliográfica que da cuenta de la investigación en Science Direct, PubMed, Ovid, Scielo, Psicodoc y Google Académico. En dichas fuentes se encuentra que el estrés y las enfermedades cardiovasculares se relacionan entre sí mediante mecanismos fisiológicos, psicológicos y conductuales. Se concluye que la implementación de las citadas intervenciones en la regulación emocional y la reducción del estrés puede ser efectiva debido a su fácil aprendizaje, el rol activo del paciente, su bajo costo, la posibilidad de llevarse a cabo en cualquier lugar y la ausencia de riesgos fisiológicos o psicológicos; sin embargo, aún no se establecen sus efectos sobre los parámetros fisiológicos, por lo que se requieren más estudios al respecto.

Palabras clave

Riesgo cardiovascular; Enfermedad cardiovascular; Estrés; Regulación emocional; Intervenciones basadas en mindfulness.

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