Intervenciones basadas en mindfulness para reducir el estrés en la enfermedad cardiovascular: ¿cómo funcionan?

Erika Yohanna Bedoya Cardona


Las enfermedades cardiovasculares corresponden a un grupo de trastornos debidos al aumento del estrés, depresión, ansiedad, sedentarismo, consumo de tabaco y alcohol y otros factores, y encabezan la lista como causa de la mayor de mortalidad en países de ingresos medios y bajos. Las pérdidas atribuibles a dichas enfermedades aumentan la pobreza y constituyen uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública en el mundo. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue explicar teóricamente cómo funcionan las intervenciones basadas en el mindfulness para la regulación emocional y la reducción de estrés en estas afecciones, mediante una revisión bibliográfica que da cuenta de la investigación en Science Direct, PubMed, Ovid, Scielo, Psicodoc y Google Académico. En dichas fuentes se encuentra que el estrés y las enfermedades cardiovasculares se relacionan entre sí mediante mecanismos fisiológicos, psicológicos y conductuales. Se concluye que la implementación de las citadas intervenciones en la regulación emocional y la reducción del estrés puede ser efectiva debido a su fácil aprendizaje, el rol activo del paciente, su bajo costo, la posibilidad de llevarse a cabo en cualquier lugar y la ausencia de riesgos fisiológicos o psicológicos; sin embargo, aún no se establecen sus efectos sobre los parámetros fisiológicos, por lo que se requieren más estudios al respecto.

Palabras clave

Riesgo cardiovascular; Enfermedad cardiovascular; Estrés; Regulación emocional; Intervenciones basadas en mindfulness.

Texto completo:



Abbott, R.A., Whear, R., Rodgers, L.R., Bethel, A., Thompson Coon, J., Kuyken, W. y Dickens, C. (2014). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness based cognitive therapy in vascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 76, 341-351.

Ades, P.A., Balady, G.J. y Berra, K. (2001). Transforming exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programs into secondary prevention centers: a national imperative. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 21, 263-272.

Alarcón, R. y Ramírez, E. (2006). Medicina psicosomática en enfermedad cardiovascular: Consideraciones clínicas. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 14(19), 112-124.

Albert, C., Chae, C., Rexrode, K., Manson, J. y Kawachi, I. (2005). Phobic anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death among women. Circulation, 111(4), 480-487.

Allen, N.B. y Knight, W.E.J. (2005). Mindfulness, compassion for self and compassion for others: Implications for understanding the psychopathology and treatment of depression. En P. Gilbert (Ed.): Compassion: conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy (pp. 239-262). London: Routledge.

Angheel, L., Ghiuru, R. y Gavrilescu, C.M. (2011). Depression and cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. Revista Medico-Chirurgicala a Societatii De Medici Si Naturalisti Din Iasi, 115(2), 331-336.

Arch, J.J. y Craske, M.G. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behavoiur Research and Therapy, 44, 1849-1858.

Arnau, M. y Rodríguez, M. (2006). Estrés y enfermedad cardiovascular. En J. Pla Vidal y J. Salvador Rodríguez (Coords.): Aspectos psicológicos en las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Madrid: Acción Médica.

Arthur, H.M., Patterson, C. y Stone, J.A. (2005). The role of complementary and alternative therapies in cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic evaluation. The European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 13, 3-9.

Baer, R.A., Smith, G.T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J. y Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45.

Balady, G.J., Williams, M.A., Ades, P.A., Bittner, V., Comoss, P., Foody, J.M. y American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (2007). Core components of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs: 2007 update: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention Committee; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Epidemiology and Prevention, and Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Circulation, 115(20), 2675-2682.

Barnes, S., Brown, K.W., Krusemark, E., Campbell, W.K. y Rogge, R.D. (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33, 482-500.

Barrett, L.E. y Gross, J.J. (2001). Emotion representation and regulation: A process model of emotional intelligence. En T. Mayne y G. Bonnano (Eds.): Emotion: Current issues and future directions (pp. 286-310). New York: Guilford.

Blom, K., Baker, B., How, M., Dai, M., Irvine, J., Abbey, S. y Tobe, S.W. (2014). Hypertension analysis of stress reduction using mindfulness meditation and yoga: results from the HARMONY randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Hypertension, 27(1), 122-129. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpt134.

Blumenthal, J.A., Sherwood, A. y Babyak, M.A. (2005). Effects of exercise and stress management training on markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic heart disease. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(13), 1626-1634. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.13.1626.

Bohlmeijer, E., Prenger, R., Taal, E. y Cuijpers, P. (2010). The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 539-544.

Bostock, S., Hamer, M., Wawrzyniak, A.J., Mitchell, E.S. y Steptoe, A. (2011). Positive emotional style and subjective, cardiovascular and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(8), 1175-1183. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.02.009.

Brewer, J.A., Mallik, S., Babuscio, T.A., Nich, C., Johnson, H.E., Deleone, C.M. y Rounsaville, B.J. (2011). Mindfulness training for smoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119(1-2), 72-80.

Brown, K.W. y Cordon, S. (2009). Toward a phenomenology of mindfulness: subjective experience and emotional correlates. En F. Didonna (Ed.): Clinical handbook of mindfulness (pp. 59-81). New York: Springer.

Brown, K.W. y Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848.

Brown, K.W., Ryan, R.M. y Creswell, J.D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211-237.

Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J.D., Forman, E.M., Moitra, E. y Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present-moment awareness and acceptance: The Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment, 15, 204-223.

Carney, R.M., Freedland, K.E., Miller, G.E. y Jaffe, A.S. (2002). Depression as a risk factor for cardiac mortality and morbidity. A review of potential mechanisms. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 897-902.

Castillo-Richmond, A., Schneider, R.H., Alexander, C.N., Cook, R., Myers, H., Nidich, S. y Salerno, J. (2000). Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. Stroke, 31, 568-573. [PubMed: 10700487].

Chambers, R., Lo, B.C. y Allen, N.B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 302-322.

Chaves, G., Britez, N., Munzinger, J., Uhlmann, L., Gonzalez, G., Oviedo, G. y Mereles, D. (2015). Education to a healthy lifestyle improves symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors – AsuRiesgo Study. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 104(5), 347-355.

Chiesa, A. y Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15, 593-600.

Chiesa, A. y Serretti, A. (2010). A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1239-1252.

Clouse, R.E., Freedland, K.E., Carney, R.M., Griffith, P. y Lustman, P.J. (2001). Depression accelerates the presentation of coronary heart disease in women with diabetes mellitus. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 103.

Cohen, H.W., Gibson, G. y Alderman, M.H. (2000). Excess risk of myocardial infarction in patients treated with antidepressant medications: association of use of tricyclic agents. The American Journal of Medicine, 108, 2-8.

Creswell, J.D., Way, B.M., Eisenberger, N.I. y Lieberman, M.D. (2007). Neural correlates of mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 560-565.

Cully, J.A., Stanley, M.A., Deswal, A., Hanania, N.A., Phillips, L.L. y Kunik, M.E. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic cardiopulmonary conditions: preliminary outcomes from an open trial. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 12(4), e1-e6. Disponible en

Davis, J.M., Goldberg, S.B., Anderson, M.C., Manley, A.R., Smith, S.S. y Baker, T.B. (2014). Randomized trial on mindfulness training for smokers targeted to a disadvantaged population. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 571-585.

Day, W. (2000). Relaxation: a nursing therapy to help relieve cardiac chest pain. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18(1), 40-44.

De la Fuente, M., Franco, C. y Salvador, M. (2010). Reduction of blood pressure in a group of hypertensive teachers through a program of mindfulness meditation. Behavioral Psychology, 18, 533-552.

De Souza, I.C., De Barros, V.V., Gomide, H.P., Miranda, T.C., Menezes, V. de P., Kozasa, E.H. y Noto, A.R. (2015). Mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of smoking: a systematic literature review. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(3), 129-140. doi: 10. 1089/acm.2013.0471.

Dehdari, T., Heidarnia, A., Ramezankhani, A., Sadeghian, S. y Ghofranipour, F. (2009). Effects of progressive muscular relaxation training on quality of life in anxious patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 129(5), 603-608.

Dekker, R.L. (2011). Cognitive therapy for depression in patients with heart failure: a critical review. Heart Failure Clinics, 7(1), 127-141.

Delui, M.H., Yari, M., Khouyinezhad, G., Amini, M. y Bayazi, M.H. (2013). Comparison of cardiac rehabilitation programs combined with relaxation and meditation techniques on reduction of depression and anxiety of cardiovascular patients. The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, 7, 99-103.

DiMatteo, M.R., Lepper, H.S. y Croghan, T.W. (2000). Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 2101-2107.

Dimsdale, J.E. (2008). Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 51, 1237-1246.

Drewnowski, A. (2009). Obesity, diets, and social inequalities. Nutrition Reviews, 67, S36-S39.

Durham, N.C. (2001). Depression and FCC. Archives of Internal Medicine. Aug. Disponible en

Eaker, E.D., Sullivan, I.M., Kelly-Hayes, M., D’Agostino, R.B.S. y Benjamin, E.J. (2005). Tension and anxiety and the prediction of the 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, and total mortality: the Framingham Offspring Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(5), 692-696.

Edelman, D., Oddone, E.Z., Liebowitz, R.S., Yancy, W.S.Jr., Olsen, M.K., Jeffreys, A.S. y Gaudet, T.W. (2006). A multidimensional integrative medicine intervention to improve cardiovascular risk. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(7), 728-734.

Edmondson, D., Green, P., Ye, S., Halazun, H.J. y Davidson, K.W. (2014). Psychological stress and 30-day all-cause hospital readmission in acute coronary syndrome patients: an observational cohort study. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e91477. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091477.

Elwafi, H.M., Witkiewitz, K., Mallik, S., Iv, T.A. y Brewer, J.A. (2013). Mindfulness training for smoking cessation: moderation of the relationship between craving and cigarette use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 130(1-3), 222-229.

Emani, S. y Binkley, P.F. (2010). Mind-body medicine in chronic heart failure. A translational science challenge. Circulation: Heart Failure, 3, 715-725.

Feldner, M.T., Zvolensky, M.J., Eifert, G.H. y Spira, A.P. (2003). Emotional avoidance: an experimental test of individual differences and response suppression using biological challenge. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 403-411.

Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J. y Laurenceau, J. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 177-190.

Fortune, D.G., Richards, H.L., Main, C.J. y Griffiths, C.E.M. (2002). Patients’ strategies for coping with psoriasis. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 27(3), 177-184.

Frewen, P.A., Evans, E.M., Maraj, N., Dozois, D.J. y Partridge, K. (2008). Letting go: Mindfulness and negative automatic thinking. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 758-774.

García-Gómez, R.G., Lopez-Jaramillo, P. y Tomaz, C. (2007). The role played by the autonomic nervous system in the relation between depression and cardiovascular disease. Revista de Neurología, 44(4), 225-233.

Giallauria, F., Lucci, R., D’Agostino, M., Vitelli, A., Maresca, L., Mancini, M. y Vigorito, C. (2009). Two-year multicomprehensive secondary prevention program: favorable effects on cardiovascular functional capacity and coronary risk profile after acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine, 10(10), 772-780.

Gross, J.J. y Thompson, R.A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. En J.J. Gross (Ed.): Handbook of emotion and regulation (pp. 3-24). New York: Guilford.

Hamer, M., Molloy, G.J. y Stamatakis, E. (2008). Psychological distress as a risk factor for cardiovascular events: pathophysiological and behavioral mechanisms. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 52, 2156-2162.

Hartmann, M., Kopf, S., Kircher, C., Faude-Lang, V., Djuric, Z., Augstein, F. y Nawroth, P.P. (2012). Sustained effects of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction intervention in type 2 diabetic patients: design and first results of a randomized controlled trial (the Heidelberger Diabetes and Stress-Study). Diabetes Care, 35(5), 945-947.

Hayes, A.M. y Feldman, G. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 255-262.

Hayes, S.C., Strosahl, K. y Wilson, K.G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: The Guilford Press.

Hayman, L.L., Williams, C.L., Daniels, S.R., Steinberger, J., Paridon, S., Dennison, B.A. y McCrindle, B.W. (2004). Cardiovascular Health Promotion in the Schools. A statement for health and education professionals and child health advocates from the Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth (AHOY) of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation, 110, 2266-2275.

Hervás, G., Cebolla, A. y Soler, J. (2016). Intervenciones psicológicas basadas en mindfulness y sus beneficios: estado actual de la cuestión. Clínica y Salud, 27, 115-124.

Hodgins, H.S. y Knee, C.R. (2002). The integrating self and conscious experience. En E. L. Deci, y R. M. Ryan (Eds.): Handbook of Self-Determination Research (pp. 87-100). New York: University of Rochester Press.

Hughes, J.W., Fresco, D.M., Myerscough, R., van Dulmen, H.M., Carlson. L.E. y Josephson, R. (2013). Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction for prehypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75, 721-728.

Instituto Nacional de Salud y Observatorio Nacional de Salud (2014). “Enfermedad cardiovascular”. En Tercer Informe ONS: Mortalidad evitable en Colombia para 1998-2011 (p. 163). Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional de Colombia. Recuperado de

Ivanova, E., Jensen, D., Cassoff, J., Gu, F. y Knauper, B. (2015). Acceptance and commitment therapy improves exercise tolerance in sedentary women. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(6), 1251-1258.

Jacobs, G.D. (2001). Clinical applications of the relaxation response and mind-body interventions. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 7(Suppl. 1), 93-101.

Jerant, A., Moore, M., Lorig, K. y Franks, P. (2008). Perceived control moderated the self-efficacy-enhancing effects of a chronic illness selfmanagement intervention. Chronic Illness, 4(3), 173-182.

Johansson, B., Bjuhr, H. y Ronnback, L. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) improves long-term mental fatigue after stroke or traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 26, 1621-1628.

Jolliffe, J.A., Rees, K., Taylor, R.S., Thompson, D., Oldridge, N. y Ebrahim, S. (2001). Exercise-based rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1): CD001800.

Joo, H.M., Lee, S.J., Chung, Y.G. y Shin, I.Y. (2010). Effects of mindfulness based stress reduction program on depression, anxiety and stress in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society, 47, 345-351.

Joynt, K.E., Whellan, D.J. y O’Connor, C.M. (2003). Depression and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms of interaction. Biological Psychiatry, 54(3), 248-261.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144-156.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Bantam.

Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L. y Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the selfregulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2), 163-190.

Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A.O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L.G., Fletcher, K.E., Pbert, L. y Santorelli, S.F. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 936-943.

Kangasniemi, A.M., Lappalainen, R., Kankaanpaa, A., Tolvanen, A. y Tammelin, T. (2015). Towards a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values: The results of a randomized controlled trial among physically inactive adults. BMC Public Health, 15, 260.

Kearney, D.J., Milton, M.L., Malte, C.A., McDermott, K.A., Martinez, M. y Simpson, T.L. (2012). Participation in mindfulness-based stress reduction is not associated with reductions in emotional eating or uncontrolled eating. Nutrition Research, 32(6), 413-420.

Keen, A.J.A., Duncan, E. y Gold, A.E. (2012). The effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy intervention specifically designed for adults with diabetes experiencing significant levels of anxiety and/or depression: a pilot clinical service. Diabetic Medicine, 29, 161.

Kelly, J.F. y Greene, M.C. (2014). Where there’s a will there’s a way: a longitudinal investigation of the interplay between recovery motivation and self-efficacy in predicting treatment outcome. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(3), 928-934. doi: 10.1037/a0034727.

Keng, S.L., Smoski, M.J. y Robins, C.J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1041-1056.

Khawaja, I.S., Westermeyer, J.J., Gajwani, P. y Feinstein, R.E. (2009). Depression and coronary artery disease: the association, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 6(1), 38-51.

Kiken, L. y Shook, N. (2011). Looking up: Mindfulness increases positive judgments and reduces negativity bias. Social Psychology & Personality Science, 2, 425-431.

Kimberly, Y., Forrest, Z., Becker, D.J., Kuller, L.H., Wolfson, S.K. y Orchard, T.J. (2000). Are predictors of coronary heart disease and lower extremity arterial disease in type 1 diabetes the same? Atherosclerosis, 148, 159-169.

Kreitzer, M.J. y Snyder, M. (2002). Healing the hearth: Integrating complementary therapies and healing practices into the care of cardiovascular patients. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 17, 73-80.

Kubzansky, L.D. y Kawachi, I. (2000). Going to the heart of the matter: Do negative emotions cause coronary heart disease? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48(4-5), 323-337.

Lampinen, P., Heikkinen, R.L. y Ruoppila, I. (2000). Changes in intensity of physical exercise as predictors of depressive symptoms among older adults: an eight-year follow-up. Preventive Medicine, 30(5), 371-380.

Lane, D., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Beevers, G., y Lip, G. (2001). Mortality and quality of life 12 months after myocardial infarction: effects of depression and anxiety. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 221-230.

Langer, A.I., Ulloa, V.G., Cangas, A.J., Rojas, G. y Krause, M. (2015). Mindfulness-based interventions in secondary education: a qualitative systematic review. Studies in Psychology, 36(3), 533-570. doi:

Larsen, R. (2000). Toward a science of mood regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 11(3), 129-141. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1103 01.

Lawrence, M., Booth, J., Mercer, S. y Crawford, E. (2013). A systematic review of the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions following transient ischemic attack and stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 8, 465-474.

Leonaite, A. y Vainoras, A. (2010). Heart rate variability during two relaxation techniques in post-MI men. Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 5(101), 107-110.

Levitt, J.T., Brown, T.A., Orsillo, S.M. y Barlow, D.H. (2004). The effects of acceptance versus suppression of emotion on subjective and psychophysiological response to carbon dioxide challenge in patients with panic disorder. Behavior Therapy, 35, 747-766.

Linehan, M. (1993). Cognitive behavioural treatment for borderline personality disorder. New York: The Guilford Press.

Linehan, M.M., Cochran, B.N. y Kehrer, C.A. (2001). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. En D.H. Barlow (Ed.): Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (3rd ed.) (p. 470-522). New York: The Guilford Press.

Loucks, E.B., Britton, W.B., Howe, C.J., Eaton, C.B. y Buka, S.L. (2015). Positive associations of dispositional mindfulness with cardiovascular health: the New England Family Study. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22(4), 540-550.

Loucks, E.B., Schuman-Oliver, Z., Britton, W.B., Fresco, D.M., Desbordes, G., Brewer, J.A. y Fulwiler, C. (2015). Mindfulness and cardiovascular disease risk: State of the evidence, plausible mechanisms, and theoretical framework. Current Cardiology Reports, 17, 112.

Ludwing, D.S. y Kabat-Zinn, J. (2008). Mindfulness in Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(11), 1350-1352. doi: 10.1001/jama.300.11.1350.

Lyne, K. y Roger, D. (2000). A psychometric re-assessment of the COPE questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(2), 321-335.

Manchada, S.C. y Madan, K. (2014). Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease. Clinical Research in Cardiology, 103(9), 675-680. doi: 10.1007/s00392-014-0663-9.

Marlatt, G.A. y Donovan D.M. (2005). Relapse prevention: maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors. New York: The Guilford Press.

Mars, T.S. y Abbey, H. (2010). Mindfulness meditation practise as a healthcare intervention: a systematic review. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 13, 56-66.

McEwen, B. (2000). Allostasis and allostatic load: implications for neuropsy-chopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22, 108-124.

McKee, L., Zvolensky, M.J., Solomon, S.E., Bernstein, A. y Leen-Feldner, E. (2007). Emotional-vulnerability and mindfulness: A preliminary test of associations among negative affectivity, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness skills. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36, 91-100.

Mehling, W.E., Gopisetty, V., Daubenmier, J., Price, C.J., Hecht, F.M. y Stewart, A. (2009). Body awareness: construct and self-report measures. PLoS ONE, 4(5), e5614.

Messner, B. y Bernhard, D. (2014). Smoking and cardiovascular disease. mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and early atherogenesis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 34, 509-515.

Miller, C.K., Kristeller, J.L., Headings, A. y Nagaraja, H. (2014). Comparison of a mindful eating intervention to a diabetes self-management intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Health Education and Behavior, 41, 145-154.

Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social (21 de marzo de 2014). “Colombia enfrenta epidemia de enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes”. Boletín de Prensa N° 077. Boogotá: MSPS.

Miró, M.T., Perestelo-Pérez, L., Pérez, J., Rivero, A., González, M., De la Fuente, J. y Serrano, P. (2011). Eficacia de los tratamientos basados en mindfulness para los trastornos de ansiedad y depression: Una revision sistemática. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 16(1), 1-14.

Moffitt, R. y Mohr, P. (2015). The efficacy of a self-managed acceptance and commitment therapy intervention DVD for physical activity initiation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 20(1), 115-129.

Moustgaard, A., Bedard, M. y Felteau, M. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals who had a stroke: results from a pilot study. Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 25, 4-10.

Musselman, D.L., Marzec, U.M., Manatunga, A., Penna, S., Reemsnyder, A., Knight, B.T. y Nemeroff, C.B. (2000). Platelet reactivity in depressed patients treated with paroxetine: preliminary findings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 875-882.

Naranjo E., N.F., Díaz Q., F.A. y García, R.G. (2012). The influence of cardiac rehabilitation on acute myocardial infarction patients’ readmission rate in Santander, Colombia. Revista de Salud Pública, 14(5), 831-841.

Neves, A., Alves, A. J., Ribeiro, F., Lopes G., J. y Oliveira, J. (2009). The effect of cardiac rehabilitation with relaxation therapy on psychological, hemodynamic, and hospital admission outcome variables. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 29, 304-309.

Nicholson, A., Kuper, H. y Hemingway, H. (2006). Depression as an aetiologic and prognostic factor in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of 6362 events among 146,538 participants in 54 observational studies. European Heart Journal, 27, 2763-2774.

Nyklíček, I., Dijksman, S.C., Lenders, P.J, Fonteijn, W.A. y Koolen, J.J. (2014). A brief mindfulness based intervention for increase in emotional well-being and quality of life in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients: The Mindful Heart randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37(1), 135-144.

Olson, K.L. y Emery, C.F. (2015). Mindfulness and weight loss: a systematic review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 77(1), 59-67.

O’Reilly, G.A., Cook, L., Spruijt-Metz, D. y Black, D.S. (2014). Mindfulness based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review. Obesity Reviews, 15(6), 453-461.

Organización Mundial de la Salud (2011). Informe sobre la situación mundial de las enfermedades no transmisibles 2010. Resumen de orientación. Recuperado de

Organización Mundial de la Salud (2015, enero). “Enfermedades cardiovasculares”. Nota Descriptiva. Ginebra: OMS. Recuperado de

Ouwens, M.A., Schiffer, A.A., Visser, L.I., Raeijmaekers, N.J. y Nyklicek, I. (2015). Mindfulness and eating behaviour styles in morbidly obese males and females. Appetite, 87, 62-67.

Pace, T.W.W., Negi, L.T., Adame, D.D., Cole, S.P., Sivilli, T.I., Brown, T.D. y Raison, C.L. (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(1), 87-98.

Papaioannou, V., Pneumatikos, I. y Maglaveras, N. (2013). Association of heart rate variability and inflammatory response in patients with cardiovascular diseases: current strengths and limitations. Frontiers in Physiology, 4(174). Recuperado de

Phillips, J.E. y Klein, W.M.P. (2010). Socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease risk: the role of social cognitive factors. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(9), 704-727. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00295.x.

Pollock, B.G., Laghrissi-Thode, F. y Wagner, W.R. (2000). Evaluation of platelet activation in depressed patients with ischemic heart disease after paroxetine or nortriptyline treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20(2), 137-140.

Power, C., Hypponen, E. y Smith, G.D., (2005). Socioeconomic position in childhood and early adult life and risk of mortality: a prospective study of the mothers of the 1958 British birth cohort. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 1396-1402.

Proulx, K. (2008). Experiences of women with bulimia nervosa in a mindfulness based eating disorder treatment group. Eating Disorders, 16(1), 52-72.

Reibel, D.K., Greeson, J.M., Brainard, G.C. y Rosenzweig, S. (2001). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health-related quality of life in a heterogeneous patient population. General Hospital Psychiatry, 23, 183-192.

Richardson, S., Shaffer, J.A., Falzon, L., Krupka, D., Davidson, K.W. y Edmondson, D. (2012). Meta-analysis of perceived stress and its association with incident coronary heart disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 110, 1711-1716.

Roest, A.M., Martens, E.J., de Jonge, P. y Denoller, J. (2010). Anxiety and risk of incident coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56, 38-46.

Roest, A.M., Martens, E.J., Denollet, J. y de Jonge, P. (2010). Prognostic association of anxiety post myocardial infarction with mortality and new cardiac events: a meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 563-569.

Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D.K., Greeson, J.M., Edman, J.S., Jasser, S.A., McMearty, K.D. y Goldstein, B.J. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 13, 36-38.

Ruiz, M. (2003). Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños y adolescentes. Madrid: Díaz Santos.

Ryan, R.M. y Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychology, 55, 68-78.

Salmoirago-Blotcher, E., Husinger, M., Morgan, L., Fischer, D. y Carmody, J. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and change in health-related behaviors. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 18(4), 243-247.

Sánchez P., E.M. y Moreno C., A. (2017). Efectos del tratamiento de atención plena y compasión sobre ansiedad, calidad de vida y asma. Psicología y Salud, 27(2), 167-178.

Sandín, B. (2001). Papel de las emociones negativas en el trastorno cardiovascular: Un análisis crítico. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 7(1), 1-18.

Santorelli, S. (Ed.) (2014). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR): Standards of practice. Worcester, MA: University of Massachusetts Medical School.

Schneider, R.H., Grim, C.E., Rainforth, M.V., Kotchen, T., Sanford, I.N., Gaylord-King, C. y Alexander, C.N. (2012). Stress reduction in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Randomized, controlled trial of transcendental meditation and health education in blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 5, 750-758. doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.112.967406.

Segal, Z.V., Williams, J.M.G. y Teasdale, J.D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. NewYork: The Guilford Press.

Shapiro, S.L., Schwartz, G.E. y Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 581-599.

Shapiro, S.L., Brown, K.W. y Biegel, G. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1, 105-115.

Shapiro, S.L., Carlson, L.E., Astin, J.A. y Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373-386.

Sheila, S., Irvin, B.L., Lin, H.S. y Mar, C.L. (2003). Effects of progressive muscle relaxation on blood pressure and psychosocial status for clients with essential hypertension in Taiwan. Holistic Nursing Practice, 17(1), 41-47.

Sloan, D.M. (2004). Emotion regulation in action: Emotional reactivity in experiential avoidance. Behavior Research and Therapy, 42, 1257-1270.

Speca, M., Carlson, L.E., Goodey, E. y Angen, M. (2000). A randomized, wait-list controlled clinical trial: The effect of a mindfulness meditation based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 613-622.

Steptoe, A. y Kivimäki, M. (2013). Stress and cardiovascular disease: an update on current knowledge. Annual Review of Public Health, 34, 337-354.

Steptoe, A. y Kivimäki, M. (2012). Stress and cardiovascular disease. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 9(6), 360-370.

Steptoe, A., Shankar, A., Demakakos, P. y Wardle, J. (2013). Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(15), 5797-5801.

Strik, J., Denollet, J., Lousberg, R. y Honig, A. (2003). Comparing symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of cardiac events and increased health care consumption after myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 42(10), 1801-1807.

Stowell, J.R., Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. y Glaser, R. (2001). Perceived stress and cellular immunity: When coping counts. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 24(4), 323-339.

Sullivan, M.J., Wood, L., Terry, J., Brantley, J., Charles, A., McGee, V. y Cuffe, M.S. (2009). The Support, Education, and Research in Chronic Heart Failure Study (SEARCH): A mindfulness-based psychoeducational intervention improves depression and clinical symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure. American Heart Journal, 157, 84-90.

Tacón, A.M., Caldera, Y.M. y Ronaghan, C. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in women with breast cancer. Families, Systems & Health, 22, 193-203.

Tak, S.R., Hendrieckx, C., Nefs, G., Nyklicek, I., Speight, J. y Pouwer, F. (2015). The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands. Appetite, 87, 288-295.

Teasdale, J.D., Segal, Z.V., Williams, J.M., Ridgeway, V.A., Soulsby, J.M. y Lau, M.A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 615-623.

Thurston, R.C. y Kubzansky, L.D. (2009). Women, loneliness, and incident coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(8), 836-842.

Thurston, R.C., Rewak, M. y Kubzansky, L.D. (2013). An anxious heart: anxiety and the onset of cardiovascular diseases. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 55, 524-537.

Ulmer, C.S., Stetson, B.A. y Salmon, P.G. (2010). Mindfulness and acceptance are associated with exercise maintenance in YMCA exercisers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(8), 805-809.

Vallejo, M.A. (2006). Mindfulness. Papeles del Psicólogo, 27(2), 92-99.

van Dixhoorn, J. y White, A. (2005). Relaxation therapy for rehabilitation and prevention in ischaemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 12(3), 193-202.

van Son, J., Nyklíček, I., Pop, V.J.M., Blonk, M., Erdtsieck, R., Spooren, P. y Pouwer, F. (2013). The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on emotional distress, quality-of-life, and HbA1c in outpatients with diabetes (DiaMind). Diabetes Care, 13, 823-830.

Varela, E. y Depraz, N. (2003). Imagining: Embodiment, phenomenology, and transformation. En B.A. Wallace (Ed.): Buddhism and science: Breaking new ground (pp. 195-232). New York: Columbia University Press.

Varvogli, L. y Darviri, C. (2011). Stress management techniques: evidence-based procedures that reduce stress and promote health. Health Science Journal, 5(2), 74-89.

Vickers, A., Zollman, C. y Payne, D.K. (2001). Hypnosis and relaxation therapies. The Western Journal of Medicine, 175(4), 269-272.

Villablanca, A.C., McDonald, J.M. y Rutledge, J.C. (2000). Smoking and cardiovascular disease. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 21(1), 159-172.

Wachs, K. y Cordova, J.V. (2007). Mindful relating: Exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships. Journal of Marital & Family, 33, 464-481.

Walton, K.G., Schneider, R.H. y Nidich, S.I. (2004). Review of controlled research on the transcendental meditation program and cardiovascular disease: risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiology in Review, 12(5), 262-266.

Walton, K.G., Schneider, R.H., Nidich, S.I., Salerno, J.W., Nordstrom, C.K. y Merz, C.N.B. (2002). Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease, Part 2: Effectiveness of the transcendental meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine, 28(3), 106-123.

Wansink, B., Painter, J.E. y North, J. (2005). Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion sizes may influence intake. Obesity Research, 13(1), 93-100.

Williams, K.A., Kolar, M.M., Reger, B.E. y Pearson, J.C. (2001). Evaluation of a wellness-based mindfulness stress reduction intervention: A controlled trial. American Journal of Health Promotion, 15, 422-432.

Witte, D.R., Bots, M.L., Hoes, A.W. y Grobbee, D.E. (2000). Cardiovascular mortality in Dutch men during 1996 European football championship: longitudinal population study. British Medical Journal, 321, 1552-1554.

Wupperman, P., Neumann, C.S. y Axelrod, S.R. (2008). Do deficits in mindfulness underlie borderline personality features and core difficulties? Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(5), 466-482.

Yeh, G.Y., Davis, R.B. y Phillips, R.S. (2006). Use of complementary therapies in patients with cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 98(5), 673-680.

Yeung, S. (2013). Mindfulness, negative cognition and mental health. SS Student E-Journal, 2, 49-67.

Younge, J.O., Gotink, R.A., Baena, C.P., Roos-Hesselink, J.W. y Hunink, M. (2014). Mind–body practices for patients with cardiac disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 22(11), 1385-1398. doi: 10.1177/2047487314549927.

Ziegelstein, R.C., Fauerbach, J.A., Stevens, S.S., Romanelli, J., Richter, D.P. y Bush, D.E. (2000). Patients with depression are less likely to follow recommendations to reduce cardiac risk during recovery from a myocardial infarction. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 1818-1823.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Psicología y Salud es una publicación semestral, con tiraje de 100 ejemplares, editada por el Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas de la Universidad Veracruzana y con ISSN impreso: 1405-1109. 

Calle Dr. Luis Castelazo Ayala s/n, Industrial Ánimas, 91190 Xalapa, Veracruz, México, Tel. (228)841-89-00, ext. 13215, fax (228)841-89-14, correos electrónicos: y

Indizada en PsycINFO, EBSCO, CLASE, LATINDEX, CUIDEN y Thomson Gale.

Visite nuestra página

contador de visitas